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I am not directly concerned in this paper with american latin studies as such, which have their own dynamic, but the united states has undoubtedly been an important factor in the development of the new latin as it developed from its cambridge base. But in its direct and uncompromising confrontation with the problem of modernity with which i began, the new latin movement does present a challenge which all classical scholars have to face how do we continue to speak to our contemporaries, and thus continue to play a role in the intellectual life of our cultures? This time round, the retreat into the monasteries is not even an option far better to take our chances out there on the streets. The problem i find in this opposition, however, is that both positivism and historicism , at least in their more naive versions, neglect sociology and the politics of the academy.

Again, i stress that this will inevitably mean that the degree of ideological dispute between the figures i have discussed will be underestimated i can do no more than signal again that these are all also individual scholars working to their own agenda from their own intellectual starting-points. It is not surprising therefore that the history of criticism itself has become a focus of attention. The new latin has certainly on occasions found itself in opposition to the cruder forms of historicism which naively attempt to reduce literary texts to their most obvious historical references, and it shows the familiar post-modern fascination with devices like the.

Some of these are big stories, like the roots of democracy in 5th century athens, some even bigger ones such as the western construction of love and the lover our task is simultaneously to hand on and to criticise these myths, to show both their inadequacy and their indispensability. The reproach is often made, for instance, to the american and english new critics of vergil from the 60s and 70s that their attitudes were formed by the politics of their own day as if those of their opponents were not, and as if it were somehow good to be of ones time if one were a greek or roman but not if one were a 20th century professor at harvard. Where the new latin has engaged with the reception of classical texts, however, it has seen the palimpsest of interpretation as more like an onion strip away the layers, and what you will be left with is nothing at all.

German work from richard heinzes has for some time been revaluing this belatedness not as weakness but as strength, and this tendency has been greatly strengthened in new latin work. What is common is an awareness of the constructed nature of literary interpretation, and consequently of the critics own ideology as a determinant in the process of reading. It was contact with him that was decisive in making many older scholars theoretically aware, and it is his pupils who have produced and continue to produce some of the most important new work - young scholars like emily movement because several important figures in it now work in the united states, though english-speaking might be better still denis of the university of washington in seattle, both passed through cambridge on their way to the united states, but the former is a new zealander and the latter an irishman.

My concern in this paper is to offer, in the light of these general remarks, a sketch of some developments in the criticism of latin poetry in the english-speaking world since the new criticism. Another aspect of this revaluation of silver latin is the treatment of unity. Once one moves beyond the banality of seeing allusion as paying homage or signalling a debt, the dense intertextuality of these texts becomes an asset rather than a liability, a source of richness rather than a sign of a lack of originality.

Traditionally, two models have been available to us for this task. This has in particular led to a great revaluation of so-called silver latin, and in particular of ovid, lucan, seneca, and the flavian epicists, above all statius, who has to an extent regained in new latin criticism the position of centrality that he possessed in the middle ages. One factor which is distinctive about the new latin, however, is its stress on the role not of in the words of the title of alessandro barchiesis book. Structuralism famously intensified this project with its attempts to list and interpret all the equivalencies (in the jacobsonian sense) of literary works but with the final demonstration of its impossibility by post-structuralism, criticism moved from trying to demonstrate unity to revealing the fissures and gaps of the text, its to be pulled together in a totalising hermeneutic act. That group of scholars was succeeded in the late 1970s and 1980s by a second wave of theoretically-aware younger scholars such as the ancient historian mary beard and the hellenist simon goldhill.


Arachnion, n. 2 - Fowler: Modern Literary Theory and Latin Poetry: some Anglo...


Poetry and civil war in Lucan's Bellum civile (Cambridge 1992) Alison Sharrock ... Homo Viator, Classical Essays for John Bramble (Bristol 1987). 'Livy and the invention of ... The problem I find in this opposition, however, is that both positivism and historicism ... Some of the New Latin writing may ... ·

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Problems with writing essays Cambridge ·. paper about setswana. That group of scholars was succeeded in the late 1970s and 1980s by a second wave of theoretically-aware younger scholars such as the ancient historian mary beard and the hellenist simon goldhill. Feminist criticism is no more monolithic than any other branch some classical examples show how patriarchy pervades even the most apparently liberal texts, others how even the most obviously patriarchal text may be subverted by a determined reader. An important role has also been played by the periodical , edited by the first-wave cambridge scholar tony boyle, who now teaches at the university of southern california. book edited by Jon Elster.

  • German work from richard heinzes has for some time been revaluing this belatedness not as weakness but as strength, and this tendency has been greatly strengthened in new latin work. I shall come back to the feminist elements in the anglo-american new latin movement. Using especially the girardian theories of scapegoating and sacrifice that have been so productive in greek studies, hardie sees the intertextual struggle of silver latin epic to recuperate and transcend its vergilian model as a mirror for the continual struggle of the roman empire to reach a resolution of the violence out of which it was born. The journal is distributed by the host of cisi - università degli studi di torino, via santottavio 20, i-10124 torino. Quoting this document, please remember to mention the original paper edition, if any, and the electronic edition of arachnion (in the form arachnion.

    The problem i find in this opposition, however, is that both positivism and historicism , at least in their more naive versions, neglect sociology and the politics of the academy. The new latin has certainly on occasions found itself in opposition to the cruder forms of historicism which naively attempt to reduce literary texts to their most obvious historical references, and it shows the familiar post-modern fascination with devices like the. The us has always ironically been the main vector by which continental european literary theory has entered the english-speaking world, as most obviously with the reception of deconstruction at yale and the apotheosis of foucault on the west coast. What is common is an awareness of the constructed nature of literary interpretation, and consequently of the critics own ideology as a determinant in the process of reading. What is particularly distinctive about this politicisation of poetics, as i remarked above, is that it includes within its sphere the political stance of the critic himself or herself.

    Our stories must be simultaneously of our time and about the past, since it is that pastness that distinguishes our tales from those of other mythographers, but to talk to our contemporaries we must speak the language of today. In simultaneously engaging with both ancient and modern ideology, the new latin has emphatically proclaimed its historical situatedness to read a latin text involves the critic on many different levels of political engagement. But traditionally-minded scholars who wish to read texts differently have a duty to face the same questioning of their presuppositions as is common to the new latin critics, rather than retreating into the shelter of authority and tradition. Clearly, i use terms like myth and story not to mean fictions as the opposite of truth, but in the spirit of postmodernism, as narratives which provide a framework within which we can live our lives. ). Many modern theoretical approaches are of course strongly allegorical, in that they attempt to get behind or beneath a surface meaning, however the hidden meaning is conceptualised, and this tendency is reinforced by the rejection of intentionalism common to many approaches the reader is figured as operating on the text to produce meaning, rather than attempting to recover authorial intention. Ovids fasti and the problem of free speech under the principate, pages 1-25 in shall i compare thee. It is not surprising, therefore, that the analysis of intertextuality is a central tool of the new latin, and one where the influence of conte and italian scholarship is most evident. One direction this work can take is towards a view of literature as a self-contained system, and this tendency can be seen in some recent criticism. To many, the pursuit of an unemotional detachment and a single univocal meaning will seem just two more familiar examples of phallic neurosis.

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    Within classical studies, american scholars like charles segal (also of course an important latinist) and froma zeitlin were central in bringing french structuralist thought into greek studies. My concern in this paper is to offer, in the light of these general remarks, a sketch of some developments in the criticism of latin poetry in the english-speaking world since the new criticism. It has taken seriously the marxist insight that nothing is truly outside politics, least of all such subjects as love and sex which are often seen as paradigmatically private. I am not directly concerned in this paper with american latin studies as such, which have their own dynamic, but the united states has undoubtedly been an important factor in the development of the new latin as it developed from its cambridge base Buy now Problems with writing essays Cambridge

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    At the most basic level, this has encompassed readings of vergil through flavian epic, as in philip , which uses the links between vergilian passages established explicitly by valerius flaccus, statius, and silius italicus as the starting-point for readings of the vergilian originals more generally, new latin critics have been uninhibited in using material from contemporary culture to illuminate the ancient texts, seen in its most extreme form in john hendersons use of popular song in a piece like his study of horace the sketch that i have offered here of the work of these new latin critics is, i stress again, an inevitably partial one. In a sense here, the inheritance of structuralism joins with a traditional philological emphasis of the role of context, however defined Problems with writing essays Cambridge Buy now

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    But traditionally-minded scholars who wish to read texts differently have a duty to face the same questioning of their presuppositions as is common to the new latin critics, rather than retreating into the shelter of authority and tradition. But if paris-school structuralism has been central to developments in greek studies, the new latin has looked more to italy, and especially to the pisan school of gian biagio conte and others associated with the periodical. In simultaneously engaging with both ancient and modern ideology, the new latin has emphatically proclaimed its historical situatedness to read a latin text involves the critic on many different levels of political engagement. But there are a number of common concerns, which i shall turn to in the third and final part of this paper, and many of the scholars in question would accept a loose confederation of ideas Buy Problems with writing essays Cambridge at a discount

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    As the physicist studies the material world, we study antiquity the plot of our discipline is one of growing mastery of the subject, as we discover more and more about the past. To be truly historicist, for instance, may turn out to require more modern theory rather than less, as in the versions of historicism we find in greek studies influenced by paris school structuralism and by foucault. This represent the most radical break with traditional philology, where the methods of interpretation are seen as ahistorical and objective, and the goal is the recovery of a meaning already present in the text. Again, i stress that this will inevitably mean that the degree of ideological dispute between the figures i have discussed will be underestimated i can do no more than signal again that these are all also individual scholars working to their own agenda from their own intellectual starting-points Buy Online Problems with writing essays Cambridge

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    Using especially the girardian theories of scapegoating and sacrifice that have been so productive in greek studies, hardie sees the intertextual struggle of silver latin epic to recuperate and transcend its vergilian model as a mirror for the continual struggle of the roman empire to reach a resolution of the violence out of which it was born. Where the new latin has engaged with the reception of classical texts, however, it has seen the palimpsest of interpretation as more like an onion strip away the layers, and what you will be left with is nothing at all. In simultaneously engaging with both ancient and modern ideology, the new latin has emphatically proclaimed its historical situatedness to read a latin text involves the critic on many different levels of political engagement Buy Problems with writing essays Cambridge Online at a discount

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    As modern students of distant antiquity, classical scholars are permanently faced with the task of negotiating the relationship between past and present. This awareness of the role of the critics own position is part of a more general stress on the insufficiency of the text to yield meaning which is a reaction to the new critical emphasis on textual autonomy. But whatever the stance, the new latin treatment of gender has made it difficult for writers in english to talk blithely of the reader as an ungendered figure outside of history or to think that the terminology of criticism itself is gender-neutral. The degree of theoretical explicitness and therefore also, to those unfamiliar with modern theory, the difficulty of the treatments obviously varies, but this self-awareness marks a distinctive contrast to traditional philological discussion Problems with writing essays Cambridge For Sale

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    There is much important work outside the movement i shall be describing, and within it there is no single line indeed there is considerable ideological disagreement amongst the figures on whom i focus. The degree of theoretical explicitness and therefore also, to those unfamiliar with modern theory, the difficulty of the treatments obviously varies, but this self-awareness marks a distinctive contrast to traditional philological discussion. But if paris-school structuralism has been central to developments in greek studies, the new latin has looked more to italy, and especially to the pisan school of gian biagio conte and others associated with the periodical. A powerful example of this politicised aesthetic is philip hardies study of silver latin epic, For Sale Problems with writing essays Cambridge

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    This awareness of the role of the critics own position is part of a more general stress on the insufficiency of the text to yield meaning which is a reaction to the new critical emphasis on textual autonomy. There is much important work outside the movement i shall be describing, and within it there is no single line indeed there is considerable ideological disagreement amongst the figures on whom i focus. The reproach is often made, for instance, to the american and english new critics of vergil from the 60s and 70s that their attitudes were formed by the politics of their own day as if those of their opponents were not, and as if it were somehow good to be of ones time if one were a greek or roman but not if one were a 20th century professor at harvard Sale Problems with writing essays Cambridge

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